121): A fluvial process through which stones in a stream- or riverbed come to rest overlapping like shingles on a roof, with their upstream ends lying slightly lower in elevation than their downstream ends. 97): The geological principle stating that, in any pile of sedimentary rocks that have not been disturbed by folding or overturning, each bed is older than the layers above and younger than the layers below; also known as Steno’s law.(p.
107): The result when one sediment is unearthed by human or natural actions and moved elsewhere, whereby the latest material will be deposited on the bottom of the new sediment, and progressively earlier material will be deposited higher and higher in the stratigraphy.optically stimulated luminescence (OSL), and electron spin resonance (ESR)—date ceramicsenamel, respectively.
133): Forms of dating that rely upon the fact that electrons become trapped in minerals’ crystal lattices as a function of background radiation.
The age of the specimen is the total radiation received divided by the annual dose of radiation.
The greater the number of similarities, the greater the probability that the analogy is modern data from taphonomy, experimental archaeology, and ethnoarchaeology to explain why particular natural processes or human behaviors can be inferred from particular material remains.
Middle-level theory relies on the principle of uniformitarianism.
Often a short length of pure copper tubing filled with calcium sulfate, it is normally buried in a stratum for a year to record the annual dose of radiation.
The idea that strata containing similar fossil assemblages are of similar age.
) More or less homogeneous or gradational material, visually separable from other levels by a discrete change in the character of the material—texture, compactness, color, rock, organic content—and/or by a sharp break in the nature of deposition.
Context matters because information comes from what artifacts are associated with each other, with features, and with particular strata.
This concept enables archaeologists to characterize and date strata within sites using distinctive artifact forms that research shows to be diagnostic of a particular period of time(p.
135): (or Neandertals) A hominin who lived in Europe and the Near East about 300,000 to 30,000 years ago; biological anthropologists debate whether Neanderthals were in the direct evolutionary line leading to (p.
It’s not enough to know that an artifact came from a particular site; we need to know how it relates to everything else found at the site.