Hexamethylenediamine used in the manufacture of nylon-6,6 is prepared by catalytic addition of hydrogen to nitriles.
Many amines are not only bases but also nucleophiles that form a variety of electrophile compounds.They are important intermediates for chemical syntheses due to the basic functionality of the nitrogen atom and electrophilic substitution at nitrogen.Amines are used as reducing agents for the recovery of precious metals. They have active applications in organic synthesis for polymerization catalyst, chain extender in urethane coatings, agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, photographic, heat stabilizers, polymerization catalysts, flame-retardants, blowing agents for plastics, explosives, and colorants.Long chain alkyl amines are used for the synthesis of organic chemicals and surfactants used as a corrosion inhibitor, detergent, ore floating agent, fabric softener, anti-static agent, germicide, insecticide, emulsifier, dispersant, anti-caking agent, lubricant and water treatment agent.Aniline is the starting material in the dye manufacturing industry and as in the manufacture of others.
Aniline is converted into sulfanilic acid which is the parent compound of the sulfa drugs.
Amine Salts are crystalline substances that are readily soluble in water. quinine and atropine) are used medicinally in the form of soluble salts.
If alkali (sodium hydroxide) is added to solutions of such salts the free amine is liberated.
But aliphatic amines which have the high carbon content are odourless solids of high boiling point and are insoluble in water.
They are all bases and easily form salts with the mineral acids and solid salts with the halogenoalkanes.
This procedure yields a mixture of primary, secondary, and tertiary amines that is easily separated into its three components by fractional distillation; boiling methyl isocyanate with caustic potash, heating the alkyl iodides with ammonia; reduction of nitriles with alcohol and sodium; heating the esters of nitric acid with alcoholic ammonia; reducing on nitro-paraffms; action of zinc and hydrochloric acid on aldehyde ammonias; reduction of the phenylhydrazones and oximes of aldehydes and ketones with sodium amalgam in the presence of alcohol and sodium acetate; action of dilute hydrochloric acid on the isonitriles; heating the mustard oils with a mineral acid, by the hydrolysis of the alkyl phthalimides.