Although most evident in personal ornaments and symbolic markings, the change from one way of living to another was not restricted to aesthetics.
Our analysis shows that: ( 40,000 and 20,000 y ago in South Africa is poorly known, and the timing of the Middle Stone Age (MSA) to Late Stone Age (LSA) transition is debated.
The transition from the Middle Stone Age (MSA) to the Later Stone Age (LSA) in South Africa was not associated with the appearance of anatomically modern humans and the extinction of Neandertals, as in the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition in Western Europe.
Bipolar knapping includes bipolar cores, bipolar flakes and bladelets, and scaled pieces.C dates by Pretoria and Australian National University Accelerator (ANUA) on charcoal samples from excavation 4 (5, 8) and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) dates by the Oxford and Kiel laboratories on digging stick wood, OES bead, pitch, and beeswax from 1BS Lower B C.The HP technocomplex at Rose Cottage and Klasies was characterized by a gradual evolution of knapping techniques, accompanied by some changes in the typological composition of the assemblages and by an increasing disregard for the regularity of the morphology of tools and debitage products (18, 19).The changes we observe at Border Cave also reflect internal evolution.Post-HP assemblages directly above THO show almost complete absence of blade cores, and the blades present are less standardized.
The similarities in technological changes between Border Cave and Rose Cottage (575 km apart) suggest an open system of cultural transmission. Changes in the frequencies of main artifact classes in layers 2WA (307), 2BS Lower A B (137), 2BS UP (135), 1WA (3418), and 1BS B C (221).
Bayesian analysis of the The 1WA and 1BS Lower B C lithic assemblages are characterized by the production and use of unretouched blanks with sharp edges, made from unorganized cores, without standardized reduction strategies ().
The technology is expedient and wasteful of material, resulting in high numbers of flake fragments, shatters, and minute debris.
According to Beaumont, the appearance of new tools and ornaments [bored stones, digging sticks, ostrich eggshell (OES) beads, bone points, engraved bone, and wood objects], together with high frequencies of microliths made by the bipolar technique and hafted with pitch, and of scaled pieces mark the beginning of the LSA (early LSA or ELSA) at Border Cave. We have done a comprehensive study of three post-HP layers and of the two ELSA layers.
Some scholars have accepted this interpretation (10); others have rejected it (11), expressed doubts about the association of organic artifacts (11–13), or suggested that the transition MSA–LSA took place between 32 and 22 ka, setting the beginning of the LSA at 22 ka (14, 15). Our focus is on the technology of stone artifacts and the analysis of hafting adhesives and bored stones.
Quartzite, dolerite, and hornfels occur in negligible quantities.